Mississippian Political Economy

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Annotated Bibliography - Jon Muller

Spring 2000, Anthropology 510


Political Economy

Historical Materialist

General Sources

Engels, Friedrich

1878 Herrn Eugen Dührings Umwälzung der Wissenschaft. {Anti-Dühring}. [Many editions, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Werke, Band 20. Dietz Verlag, Berlin. [English translation, Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow 1959].

A basic source on the dialectic and its relation to knowledge

1888 Ludwig Feuerbach und der Ausgang der klassischen deutschen Philosophie. [1962, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Werke, Band 21, s. 259-307. Dietz Verlag, Berlin].

Philosophical grounding of historical materialism

1892 Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigenthums und des Staats. Im Anschluss an Lewis Henry Morgan's Forschungen. [Vierten, ergänzten Auflage]. [1st edition, 1884, Hottingen-Zürich.] [1962, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Werke, Band 21. S. 25-173. Dietz Verlag, Berlin. ] [trans. Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. many translations and printings: 1975, In K. Marx and F. Engels, Selected Works. Progress Publishers, Moscow].

The basic source on historical-materialist treatment of non-western social formations.

Engels, Friedrich and Karl Marx

1845 Die heilige Familie, oder Kritik der kritischen Kritik. Gegen Bruno Bauer & Consorten. [1959, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Werke, Band 2, S. 3-223. Dietz Verlag, Berlin] [English translation, 1975, The Holy Family, or Critique of Critical Criticism. Against Bruno Bauer and Co., Progress Publishers, Moscow].

Discussions of critical criticism -- highly relevant to modern "critical" approaches to textual materials from the realist perspective.

Hobsbawm, E. J.

1964 Introduction. In Karl Marx, Pre-Capitalist Economic Formations. pp. 9-65. International Publishers, New York.

A summary of pre-capitalist discussions by Marx and Engels. A good place to start.

Kuusinen, O.V., Y.A. Arbatov, A. S. Belyakov, S.L. Vygodsky, A.G. Mileikovsky, and L.M. Sheidin,with the assistance of F.M. Burlatsky, N.I. Ivanov, B.M. Leibzon, A.A. Makarovsky, and Y.P. Sitkovsky.

1963 Fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism. Second Revised Edition. Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow. English Edition edited by Clemens Dutt.

A fundamental text used for years in teaching Marxism-Leninism in the USSR. It is a good summary of the essentials of the viewpoint (but always note the year of publication of the edition you're using). Its main drawback is the poor quality of citation of the original sources.

Marx, Karl

1852 Der 18te Brumaire des Louis Napoleon. Schmidt-Helmich, New York. [1960, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Werke, Band 8. S. 111-207. Dietz Verlag, Berlin.] [The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, many translations and printings: 1975, In K. Marx and F. Engels, Selected Works. pp. 96-179, Progress Publishers, Moscow].

A key analysis by Marx of the coup d'etat that established the Second Empire in France. Marx discusses the use of power to corrupt and reward followers.

1859 Zur Kritik der politischen Ökonomie. Berlin [1964, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Werke, Band 13. Dietz Verlag, Berlin] [1970, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Progress Publishers, Moscow].

A sort of 'prolegomena' to Capital. the only summaries of more detailed discussions in the Grundrisse published in Marx's lifetime.

1867 Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie. Buch I: Der Produktionsprozeß des Kapitals. Verlag von Otto Meissner, Hamburg. [1962, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Werke, Band 23. Dietz Verlag, Berlin] [1906 Translation by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling, Capital, Modern Library, New York].

Mostly on capitalist economies, but does contain some discussion of precapitalist modes.

1964 Pre-Capitalist Economic Foundations. [Formen ] International Publishers, New York. [sections entitled Formen die der Kapitalistichen Produktion vorhergehen.. of 1857-8 ms. published in total in 1939-41 as Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie, Moscow. Also in K. Marx and F. Engels, Pre-Capitalistic Socio-Economic Formations: A Collection. Moscow, Progress Publishers, 1979:83-136]

The major work, not published in his lifetime, on the economic structures of non-capitalist social formations.

Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels

1846 Die deutsche Ideologie. [1959, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Werke, Band 3. S. 9-530. Dietz Verlag, Berlin].

Marx and Engels's first collaboration. The essentials of Marxism are sketched out, but in an incomplete form. Some so-called Marxists in the West love this work of Marx and Engels best because it still has many idealist, Hegelian features.

1958-68 Karl Marx-Friedrich Engels Werke. Dietz Verlag, Berlin.

The complete edition of the entire published and more-or-less completed mss. of Marx and Engels. A more recent critical edition called the Gesamt Ausgabe ... includes all mss. with their original crossings out, etc.

1975 Selected Works. Progress Publishers, Moscow.

There are many versions of this, and the exact contents at any given time depend on who was in charge.

Morgan, Lewis H.

1877 Ancient Society. Holt, New York.

According to Marx and Engels, Morgan independently discovered historical materialism.

Stalin, J. V.

1972 Marxism and Problems of Linguistics. Peking, Foreign Languages Press.

Stalin addresses the issue of whether language is superstructure or base (it is base).

Modes of Production


Chayanov, A. V.

1966 The Theory of Peasant Economy. edited by D. Thorner, B. Kerblay, and R. E. F Smith. The Economic Association, Homewood, Illinois.

A classical work based on massive statistics on Russian peasant economy. Much misunderstood, but indicates the domestic character of peasant production.

Crummey, Donald and C. C. Stewart

1981 Modes of Production in Africa: the Precolonial Era. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills.

non-Western production systems

Goody, Jack

1976 Production and Reproduction: A Comparative Study of the Domestic Domain. Cambridge Studies in Social Anthropology 17. Cambridge, U.K.

More on the "domestic economy"

Hindess, Barry and Paul Q. Hirst

1975 Pre-Capitalist Modes of Production. Boston, Routledge & Kegan Paul.

The massive Western discussion of pre-capitalist modes of production, but see Hindess and Hirst 1977.

1977 Mode of Production and Social Formation: An Auto-Critique of Pre-Capitalist Modes of Production. Macmillan, London.

Auto (self-)criticism is a Marxist technique in which a person admits their own errors. Hindess and Hirst have essentially rejected much of their earlier work in 1975. Not everyone agrees that the 1977 work negates the 1975.

Meillassoux, Claude

1981 Maidens, Meal and Money: Capitalism and the Domestic Economy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. [translation of 1977 Femmes, grenier et capitaux. Maspero, Paris.].

The classic work on how a non-capitalist social formation can be incorporated into capitalist production. Important analysis of how domestic economies survive in more complex contexts.

Asiatic Problem

Baily, Anne M. and Josep R. Llobera, editors

1981 The Asiatic Mode of Production: Science and Politics. Routledge & Kegan Paul, Boston.

One of several histories dealing with the problem of whether the Asiatic mode of production is a valid concept.

Dunn, Stephen P.

1982 The Fall and Rise of the Asiatic Mode of Production. Boston, Routledge & Kegan Paul.

A history of the political practice associated with advocacy, rejection, and rehabilitation of the Asiatic mode in the USSR.

Krader, Lawrence

1975 The Asiatic Mode of Production: Sources, Development and Critique in the Writings of Karl Marx. Van Gorcum & Co., Assen, Netherlands.

Another discussion of the Asiatic mode of production. The Asiatic mode is of particular relevance to the problems of non-Western states and chiefdoms.

Ostrovitianov, Iurri and Antonina Sterbalova

1977 The Social "Genotype" of the East and the Prospect of National States [Part I], Soviet Anthropology and Archeology 16(1):27-48. [Original in Russian in Novy mir 12:197-208, 1972].

Veiled Soviet discussion of the Asiatic Mode.

Wittfogel, Karl A.

1963 Oriental Despotism. Yale, New Haven.

Wittfogel started as a Marxist, but his 'heresy' in regard to the Asiatic Mode resulted in his expulsion from the Party. A careful reading of this work will suggest why.

Western Marxism

Godelier, Maurice

1977 Perspectives in Marxist Anthropology. Cambridge Studies in Social Anthropology 18. Cambridge, U. K.

A collection of modern, mostly Western, Marxian approaches.

Lukács, Georg

1954 Die Zerstörung der Vernunft. Berlin. [1980, Translation by Peter Palmer, The Destruction of Reason, The Merlin Press, London].

A critique of Soviet Marxism-Leninism.

Ollman, Bertell

1971 Alienation: Marx's Conception of Man in Capitalist Society. Cambridge University Press, New York.

A basic source for the 'Theory of Internal Relations' -- a 'realist' (i.e., 'idealist') interpretation of Marx and Engels. (see Sayer)

Sayer, Derek

1987 The Violence of Abstraction: The Analytic Foundations of Historical Materialism. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

The most powerful argument for the 'Theory of Internal Relations' -- a 'realist' (i.e., 'idealist') interpretation of Marx and Engels. (see Ollman)

Cultural Materialist/Processualist

Brumfiel, Elizabeth and T. Earle

1987 Specialisation, Exchange and Complex Societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

A collection of papers touching on issues central to archaeological investigation of political economy.

Binford, Lewis R.

1981 Bones: Ancient Men and Modern Myths. Academic Press, New York.

Perhaps the best place to see 'mid-range theory' in development. A kind of processual archaeology concerned with prehistoric 'practice'.

Carneiro, Robert

1970 A Theory of the Origin of the State. Science 169:733-738.

Environmental cirumscription is seen as basic to the formation of the state.

Earle, T. K.

1987 Specialization and the Production and Exchange of Wealth: Hawaiian Chiefdoms and the Inka Empire. In Specialisation, Exchange and Complex Societies, edited by E. Brumfiel and T. Earle, pp. 64-75, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

a comparison of state formation and economy in two critical cases.

Feinman, Gary and Jill Neitzel

1984 Too Many Types: An Overview of Sedentary Prestate Societies in the Americas. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 7. Academic Press, New York.

a critique of the overuse of typological constructs of prestate societies.

Fried, Morton H.

1967 The Evolution of Political Society. Random House, New York.

Together with Service's work, a founding source for the modern synthesis of prestate classification.

Sahlins, Marshall

1968 Tribesmen. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Discussion of non-chiefdom, non-state societies. Later, Sahlins rejected the concept of 'tribe'.

1972 Stone-Age Economics. Aldine, Chicago.

Leaning on Chayanov and others, this work developed the concept of 'domestic economy.'

Sanders, William T. and Barbara J. Price

1968 Mesoamerica: the Evolution of a Civilization. New York, Random House.

One of the earliest and most systematic applications of the Service typology of social formations to archaeological materials. Had a tremendous impact.

Service, Elman R.

1962 Primitive Social Organization: an Evolutionary Perspective. Random House, New York.

Together with Fried's work, a founding source for the modern synthesis of prestate classification.

1975 Origins of the State and Civilization: The Process of Cultural Evolution. W. W. Norton, New York.

an expansion of the concepts developed in earlier work by Service and Fried.

Culture Historical

Dalton, George, editor

1967 Tribal and Peasant Economies: Readings in Economic Anthropology. Garden City, New York, Natural History Press.

Various readings on economic anthropology of non-Western peoples.

1968 Primitive, Archaic and Modern Economies: Essays of Karl Polanyi. Garden City, New York, Anchor Books.

An economist's view of economic issues in the social sciences. Basic to the culture historical debate between 'substantivists' and 'formalists' in economics, cf. Herskovits.

Herskovits, Melville J.

1965 Economic Anthropology: The Economic Life of Primitive Peoples. New York, The Norton Library.

A 'formalist' perspective on culture historical economic anthropology.


Gibbon, Guy

1984 Anthropological Archaeology. Columbia University Press, New York.

A 'realist' interpretation of archaeology, deserving more recognition as an American source for postprocessual archaeology

Hodder, Ian

1982 The Present Past: An Introduction to Anthropology for Archaeologists. Pica Press, New York.

An example of the sophistication (or rather the lack thereof) of postprocessualist archaeologists as anthropologists.

1984 Archaeology in 1984. Antiquity 58(222):25-32.

The clearest statement by Hodder of his idealist bias.

1986 Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, New York.

The dawning of critical criticism in archaeology.

1987 Bow Ties and Pet Foods: Material Culture and the Negotiation of Change in British Industry. in I. Hodder, ed., The Archaeology of Contextual Meanings. pp. 11-19. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

An example of postprocessualist explanation of historical phenomena.

Hodder, Ian (editor)

1982 Symbolic and Structural Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, New York.

The manifesto that signaled the rejection of Binford, Clarke, and Renfrew and the formation of postprocessualism.

1987 The Archaeology of Contextual Meanings. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Various essays on critical criticism in archaeology. Compare Jean-Claude Gardin's work (not cited here) for a different approach to the analysis of archaeological text as text.

Kohl, Philip L.

1985 Symbolic Cognitive Archaeology: A New Loss of Innocence. Dialectical Anthropology 9:105-117.

An historical materialist critique of postprocessualism.

1988 Limits to a Post-Processual Archaeology (or The Dangers of a New Scholasticism). Paper presented at the Theory in Post-Processual Archaeology symposium, Society for American Archaeology, Phoenix.

1989 World Prehistory: Comments on the Development, Peculiarities and Requirements of a Forgotten Genre. Ms. 13 Feb. 1989.

An analysis of racist and other nonprogressive elements in some archaeologies.

Miller, Daniel, and C. Tilley, eds.

1984 Ideology, Power and Prehistory. Cambridge, U.K., Cambridge University Press.

A postprocessual collection of papers on ideas and power in prehistory.

Shanks, Michael and Christopher Tilley

1982 Ideology, Symbolic Power and Ritual Communication: A Reinterpretation of Neolithic Mortuary Practices. in I. Hodder, ed., Symbolic and Structural Archaeology. pp. 129-154. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

An emphasis on power and domination marks this early postprocessualist paper.

1987 Social Theory and Archaeology. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

An expansion of the ideas proposed earlier on domination as a key factor in social change.


1982 Social Formation, Social Structures and Social Change. in I. Hodder, ed., Symbolic and Structural Archaeology. pp. 26-38. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

Another early statement on domination and power as key elements in social change.


Brohmer, Paul

1933 Biologieunterricht und völkische Erziehhung. Verlag Mortiz Diesterweg. [Selections in translation in George L. Mosse, Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural and Social Life in the Third Reich. pp. 81-90. Grosset & Dunlap, New York.]

An example of one possible, though certainly not inevitable, consequence of an idealist approach to prehistory: Nazi 'race science'.

Lenard, Philipp

1936 Deutsche Physik. Bd. 1: Einleitung und Meckanik. J.F. Lehmanns Verlag, München. [Selections in translation in George L. Mosse, Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural and Social Life in the Third Reich. pp. 201-205. Grosset & Dunlap, New York.]

Another example of how ideology can permeate all fields, in this case, a racial physics.

Löwy, Michael

1984 Stalinist Ideology and Science. In The Stalinist Legacy: Its Impact on 20th Century World Politics. edited by Tariq Ali, pp. 168-184. Penguin Books, New York.

A critique of Stalinist distortions of science (from a Trotskyist perspective). What happens when ideology on the left overrides a refutationist view of knowledge.

Nolte, Ernst

1966 Three Faces of Fascism: Action Française, Italian Fascism, National Socialism. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York. [orig. 1963, Der Fasichismus in seiner Epoche: Die Action française, Der Italiener Faschismus, Der Nationalsozialismus. R. Piper Verlag, München.]

An analysis of the essential elements of fascism, including: a rejection of the Enlightenment view of reason and an emphasis on 'action' (or 'practice'?).


Flannery, Kent V.

1972 The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 3:399-426.

A discussion of major events and processes in the development of the state.

Gabel, Creighton

1967 Analysis of Prehistoric Economic Patterns. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

A methods book (by an Africanist) on economic analysis in archaeology.

Hegmon, Michelle

1991 The Risks of Sharing and Sharing as Risk Reduction: Interhousehold Food Sharing in Egalitarian Societies. In Between Bands and States, edited by S. A. Gregg, pp. 309-329. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Center for Archaeological Investigations Occasional Paper No. 9.

A discussion of the role of risk in nonstate societies.

Johnson, Gregory

1978 Information Sources and the Development of Decision-making Organizations. In Social Archaeology: Beyond Subsistence and Dating. edited by C. L. Redman, et al. pp. 87-112. Academic Press, New York.

A 'cybernetic' or 'information theory' approach to social complexity. "Information" is NOT to be confused with "ideas."

Vayda, Andrew P., editor

1969 Environment and Cultural Behavior: Ecological Studies in Cultural Anthropology. Garden City, New York, Natural History Press.

Cultural ecology is a kind of antithesis of culture history, resulting in the 'processualist' synthesis. Here is a collection of cultural ecological papers for background.

Wobst, H. Martin

1977 Stylistic Behavior and Information Exchange. In For the Director: Research Essays in Honor of James B. Griffin, edited by Charles Cleland, pp. 317-342. University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, Anthropological Papers 61.

An information -- or perhaps more correctly, a communication -- model of the role of style in artifacts. Important here in terms of artifacts as signals of social, political, and economic identity.

Eastern North American Societies


Braun, D. P. and S. Plog

1982 Evolution of "Tribal" Social Networks: Theory and Prehistoric North American Evidence. American Antiquity 47:504-525.

A somewhat "Wobstian" view of political development and its markers in North American tribal-level societies.

Ford, Richard I.

1974 Northeastern Archaeology: Past and Future Directions. Annual Review of Anthropology 3:385-413.

A basically processualist model with strong emphasis on technology and population.

Griffin, James B.

1983 The Midlands. In Ancient North Americans, edited by J. D. Jennings, pp. 243-301. Freeman, San Francisco.

A general discussion of Midwestern archaeology for background.

Hall, Robert L.

1980 An Interpretation of the Two-climax Model of Illinois Prehistory. In Early Native Americans: Prehistoric Demography, Economy, and Technology. edited by D. L. Browman. pp. 401-462. World Anthropology, Mouton, The Hague.

A typically entertaining paper, introducing the 'schmoo effect' among other things.

Muller, Jon

1978a The Southeast. In Ancient Native Americans, edited by Jesse D. Jennings, pp. 280-325. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco. later edition 1983, pp. 373-419, in Ancient North Americans.

A general survey of the Southeast. Leans heavily on population density and technology as key contradictions

1986b Archaeology of the Lower Ohio River Valley. Academic Press, New York.

A general summary of the archaeology of the Lower Ohio drainage. The model is based on an interplay between population and technological innovation.

Peebles, Christopher and Susan Kus

1977 Some Archaeological Correlates of Ranked Societies. American Antiquity 42:421-448.

Discussion of fitting the Service model to archaeological cases.

Seeman, Mark F.

1979 Feasting with the Dead: Ohio Charnel House Ritual as a Context for Redistribution. In Hopewell Archaeology: The Chillicothe Conference, edited by D. Brose and N. Greber, pp. 39-46.

A discussion of 'redistribution' of a kind not anticipated by Service.


Bareis, Charles J., and James W. Porter, editors

1984 American Bottom Archaeology: A Summary of the FAI-270 Project Contribution to the Culture History of the Mississippi River Valley. Illinois Department of Transportation, University of Illinois, Urbana.

Summary of the FAI-270 salvage operations in the American Bottom. The work summarized is important in understanding the limitations and errors in earlier interpretations of Cahokia.

Griffin, James B.

1978 Foreword. In Mississippian Settlement Patterns, edited by B. Smith, pp. xv-xxii. Academic Press, New York.

A general discussion of the Mississippian concept.

Brown, James A., R.A. Kerber, and H.D. Winters

1990 Trade and the Evolution of Exchange Relations at the Beginning of the Mississippian Period. In The Mississippian Emergence, edited by Bruce D. Smith, pp. 251-280. Smithsonian Press, Washington.

The role of exchange is emphasized in the growth of complexity. Attempts to define away the problems of production character in Mississippian.

Butler, Brian

1977 Mississippian Settlement in the Black Bottom, Pope and Massac Counties, Illinois. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.

A basic work on Mississippian settlement in the Black Bottom-Kincaid locality.

Clay, R. Berle

1976 Tactics, Strategy, and Operations: The Mississippian System Responds to its Environment. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 1(2):138-162.

A model of Mississippian development in the Tennessee-Cumberland in terms of social environment and circumscription.

Cobb, Charles

1988 Mill Creek Chert Biface Production: Mississippian Political Economy in Illinois. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.

Production of lithic materials in Mississippian.

Cole, Fay-Cooper et al.

1951 Kincaid: A Prehistoric Illinois Metropolis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Classic source on Kincaid Mississippian.

Cook, Della C. and Jane E. Buikstra

1979 Health and Differential Survival in Prehistoric Populations: Prenatal Dental Effects. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 51:649-664.

Discussion of the effects of the economy as reflected in human health.

Davy, Douglas M.

1982 Proximity and Human Behavior: Settlement Locational Pattern Change in Prehistoric Illinois. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.

A model of Kincaid locality population and settlement.

Fowler, Melvin L.

1969 The Cahokia Site. In Explorations into Cahokia Archaeology, edited by M. L. Fowler, pp. 1-30. Illinois Archaeological Survey, Bulletin 7.

An summary of the pre-FAI-270 interpretations of Cahokia locality archaeology.

1974 Cahokia: Ancient Capital of the Midwest. Addison-Wesley Module in Anthropology 48:1-38.

One of the sources for the interpretations enshrined in the new museum at Cahokia. Outside of the park boundaries, few today accept so complex a model of Cahokia political economy.

1978 Cahokia and the American Bottom: Settlement Archaeology. In Mississippian Settlement Patterns, edited by B. Smith, pp. 445-478, Academic Press, New York.

A summary of the pre-FAI-270 state of knowledge about Cahokia and the American Bottom.

Goldstein, Lynne G.

1980 Mississippian Mortuary Practices: A Case Study of Two Cemeteries in the Lower Illinois Valley. Northwestern University Archaeological Program, Evanston, Illinois.

Mississippian -- if a little backwoods -- mortuary practices. Compare to Fowler's view of Cahokia.

Hatch, James W.

1976 Status in Death: Principles of Ranking in Dallas Culture Mortuary Remains. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University.

East Tennessee Mississippian status and burial practices as a measure of ranking.

Lafferty, Robert

1977 The Evolution of the Mississippian Settlement Pattern and Exploitative Technology in the Black Bottom of Southern Illinois. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.

Kincaid locality archaeology from a technical viewpoint.

Milner, George R.

1982 Measuring Prehistoric Levels of Health: A Study of Mississippian Period Skeletal Remains from the American Bottom, Illinois. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana.

A key work in the development of revisionist views of Cahokia.

1984 Social and Temporal Implications of Variation among American Bottom Mississippian Cemeteries. American Antiquity 49(3):468-488.

A revisionist view of Cahokia indicating that it is far more like other Mississippian societies than previous thought by some.

1986 Mississippian Period Population Density in a Segment of the Central Mississippi River Valley. American Antiquity 51(2):227-238.

Still more in the revision of American Bottom population estimates and social complexity.

Muller, Jon

1978b The Kincaid System: Mississippian Settlement in the Environs of a Large Site. In Mississippian Settlement Patterns, edited by B. Smith, pp. 269-292, Academic Press, New York.

A summary of the work around Kincaid.

1984 Mississippian Specialization and Salt. American Antiquity 49(3):489-507.

Tentative rejection of specialization models of Mississippian economy in salt production.

1986a Pans and a Grain of Salt: Mississippian Specialization Revisited. American Antiquity 51(2):405-409.

a response to Yerke's critique of Muller 1984.

1987a Salt, Chert, and Shell: Mississippian Exchange and Economy. In Specialization, Exchange and Complex Societies, edited by E. Brumfiel and T. Earle, pp. 10-21. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

A more general look at Mississippian production and exchange systems.

1987b Lower Ohio Valley Emergent Horticulture and Mississippian. In Emergent Horticultural Economies of the Eastern Woodlands, edited by William F. Keegan, pp. 243-273. Occasional Paper No. 7. Center for Archaeological Investigations. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.

An elaboration of population/technological models for Mississippian emergence in the Black Bottom.

1991 The Great Salt Spring: Mississippian Production and Specialization. Report to the National Science Foundation for grant BNS-89-@.

A detailed account of the investigations of producer specialization in one Mississippian society.

Muller, Jon, and Jeanette E. Stephens

1991 Mississippian Sociocultural Adaptations. In Cahokia and the Hinterlands: Middle Mississippian Cultures of the Midwest. edited by B. Lewis and T. Emerson, pp. 297-310. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Originally presented in 1983, the paper is a critique of typological, rather than ecological, models of Mississippian.

Pauketat, Timothy R.

1987 Mississippian Domestic Economy and Formation Processes: A Response to Prentice. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 12(1):77-88.

Another perspective from a critique of the "specialized" economy models of Mississippian.

Peebles, Christopher

1971 Moundville and Surrounding Sites: Some Structural Considerations for Mortuary Practices II. Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology 25:68-91

A discussion of Moundville Mississippian social structure.

Porter, James

1969 The Mitchell Site and Prehistoric Exchange Systems at Cahokia: AD 1000±300. In Explorations into Cahokia Archaeology, edited by M. L. Fowler, pp. 137-164. Illinois Archaeological Survey, Bulletin 7.

One of the boldest interpretations of Cahokia's economy. Proposes the existence of a 'market economy' and other features commonly associated with state systems. See Fowler also.

Prentice, Guy

1983 Cottage Industries: Concepts and Implications. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 8(1):17-48.

Introduced the concept of 'cottage industry' in a discussion of supposed specialization in Cahokia production. (see Muller 1984)

1985 Economic Differentiation Among Mississippian Farmsteads. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 10(1):77-122.

Backs down on some issues, but still sees Cahokia as having complex production systems (See also Pauketat 1987)

Rothschild, Nan A.

1979 Mortuary Behavior and Social Organization at Indian Knoll and Dickson Mounds. American Antiquity 44:658-675.

Use of mortuary indications of social ranking, including an Illinois Valley Mississippian example.

Sears, W. H.

1968 The State and Settlement Patterns in the New World. In Settlement Archaeology, edited by K. C. Chang, pp. 134-153, National Press Books, Palo Alto.

Who needs a straw man when this paper is around? Sears proposes that Kincaid is a 'militaristic state' (i.e., Postclassic).

Smith, Bruce D., editor

1978 Mississippian Settlement Patterns. Academic Press, New York.

The still useful summary of our knowledge of Mississippian in 1978.

Welch, Paul Daniel

1986 Models of Chiefdom Economy: Prehistoric Moundville as a Case Study. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan. [Version recently, 1991, published by University of Alabama Press]

A good, generally cautious, treatment of Mississippian economy in one of the more complex cases.

Yerkes, Richard W.

1983 Microwear, Microdrills, and Mississippian Craft Specialization. American Antiquity 48:499-518.

Proposes that shell production at Cahokia was the work of specialists. Confuses special purpose tools with specialized production.

1986 Licks, Pans and Chiefs: A Comment on "Mississippian Specialization and Salt." American Antiquity 51(2):402-404.

A critique of Muller 1984


Bartram, William

1928 Travels of William Bartram. [edited by Mark Van Doren]. Dover, new York. [original, 1791, Travels through North and South Carolina, ... James and Johnson, Philadelphia].

Basic historical account of central Southeastern groups.

Lawson, John

1709 A New Voyage to Carolina; Containing the Exact Description and Natural History of that Country... London.

The Carolinas in early historic times from an English perspective.

Swanton, John

Any of Swanton's basic summaries are good introductions to the historical literature on the East. The later works are more general and provide more generalizations, but the earlier works are more accurate in their use of the original sources.

Other Areas of Interest

Bloch, Marc

1961 Feudal Society. University of Chicago, Chicago. [translation of La Société Féodale ].

A nice discussion of the societies in Europe that are contemporary with Mississippian. A skeptical view of their complexity reveals many interesting comparisons to Mississippian.

Earle, T. K.

1977 A Reappraisal of Redistribution: Complex Hawaiian Chiefdoms. In Exchange Systems in Prehistory, edited by T. K. Earle and J. E. Ericson, pp. 213-229. Academic Press, New York.

an examination of a society used by Service et al. to define chiefly economies. Earle concludes that redistribution in Service's form, is not present.

1978 Economic and Social Organization of a Complex Chiefdom: The Halalea District, Kaua'i, Hawaii. Anthropological Papers, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan 63.

an examination of a society used by Service et al. to define chiefly economies. Earle concludes that redistribution in Service's form, is not present.

Flannery, Kent. V.

1968 The Olmec and Valley of Oaxaca: A Model for Inter-Regional Interaction in Formative Times. In Dunbarton Oaks Conference on the Olmec, edited by E. P. Benson, pp. 79-110. Dunbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.

An exchange view of complexity in development.

Isbell, William H.

1978 Environmental Perturbations and the Origin of the Andean State. In Social Archaeology: Beyond Subsistence and Dating. edited by C. L. Redman et al., pp. 303-313. Academic Press, New York.

An important paper in indicating non-specialization bases for 'redistribution'.

Meillassoux, Claude

1964 Anthropologie économique des Gouro de Côte d'Ivoire: De l'économie de subsistence à l'agriculture commerciale. Le Monde d'Outre-mer Passé et Present, Première Serie, Études 27. Mouton, Paris.

Economic data on a non-Western domestic economy society.

Postan, M. M.

1975 The Medieval Economy and Society: An Economic History of Britain in the Middle Ages. Penguin, New York.

Another summary of Medieval economy. see Bloch

Stark, Barbara L.

1986 Perspectives on the Peripheries of Mesoamerica. In Ripples in the Chichimec Sea, edited by F. J. Mathien and R. H. McGuire, pp. 270-290. Carbondale, Southern Illinois University Press.

Skepticism on the relationships of Mesoamerica and the Southwest.

Steward, Julian H. and Louis C. Faron

1959 Native Peoples of South America. McGraw-Hill, New York.

The concept of 'Chiefdom' was developed for northern South American societies -- see also the Handbook of South American Indians.

Whitecotton, Joseph and Richard A. Pailes

1986 New World Precolumbian World Systems. In Ripples in the Chichimec Sea: New Considerations of Southwestern-Mesoamerican Interactions, edited by F. J. Mathien and R. H. McGuire, pp. 183-204. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.

More skepticism on the relations of the Southwest to Mesoamerica. Useful in correcting for some overstatements of US-Mexican contacts in general.
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