back to back to Muller back to Anthropology

Anthropology 567 Fall 2000 Very Preliminary

Stylistic Analysis

Although complete for on-line presentation, the materials as handed out in class are always definitive and final forms in the event of any differences in this version.

Week & Topic

I Introduction & Discourse

II Cultural "Things" & Philosophy of Science

III Art Historical Style

IV Style in Cultural Anthropology

V Style in Archaeology

VI Archaeological Style and Communication

VII-VIII Other Uses of Style

IX Symmetry Analysis

X Architectural Grammars

XI First version Paper due

XII Discussion of papers

XIV Discussions of papers

XV (Final versions of all Papers Due) final Discussion

Anthropology 567 Readings Fall 2000

Introduction

Kaplan, A.K.

1964 The Conduct of Inquiry.

Chomsky, Noam

1963 Syntactic Structures. Janua Linguarum, Series Minor, 4. Mouton, The Hague. (originally 1957).

1966 Cartesian Linguistics. New York: Harper and Row.

1968 Language and Mind. New York: Harcourt-Brace.

1995 The Minimalist Program. MIT Press

Napoli, Donna Jo

1994 Syntax: Theory and Problems. Oxford University Press.

"mainstream formal"

Givon, T.

1995 Functionalism and Grammar. John Benjamin.

"functionalist approach"

Muller, Jon

1979 Structural Studies of Art Styles. In The Visual Arts: Plastic and Graphic, edited by J. Cordwell, pp. 139- 211 (& pp. 7-21). Mouton, The Hague.

Cultural "Things"

Kuhn, Alfred

1974 Logic of Social Systems.

Barnett, H.G.

1953 Innovation. [Appendix "On Things"]

Harris, M.

1964 The Nature of Cultural Things.. Random House.

Berlin, Brent and Paul Kay

1969 Basic Color Terms; Their Universality and Evolution . Berkeley: University of California.

RAI- Notes and Queries

HRAF Outline of Cultural Materials

Archaeological Discourse

Gardin, Jean-Claude

1980 Archaeological Constructs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Clarke, David

1968 Analytical Archaeology. Methuen, London.

& other Clarke works

Dunnell, Robert C.

1971. Systematics in Prehistory. New York: Free Press.

(Ford and Spaulding Debate)

Spaulding, A. C.

1954 Reply to Ford. American Antiquity 19(4):391-393.

Wylie, M. Alison

1981 Positivism and the new archaeology. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York, Binghamton.

1982 Epistemological issues raised by a structuralist archaeology. In Symbolic and Structural Archaeology, edited by I. Hodder, pp. 39-46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Art Historical Discouse

Arnheim, Rudolf.

1974. Art and Visual Perception. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Beardsley, Monroe, C. and H. Scheuller, editors

1967 Aesthetic Inquiry: Essays on Art Criticism and the Philosophy of Art. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. Belmont, California: Dickenson.

Berenson, Bernard

1965 Aesthetics and History in the Visual Arts. New York: Anchor.

Croce, Benedetto

* 1922 Aesthetic as Science of Expression and General Linguistic (revised edition) . New York: Macmillan.

Davis, Whitney

* 1990 Style and History in Art History. In The Uses of Style in Archaeology, edited by M. Conkey and C. Hastorf, pp. 18-31. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Hagen, Margaret A.

1986. Varieties of Realism: Geometries of Representational Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hauser, Arnold

* 1958 The Philosophy of Art History. Cleveland: Meridian.

Kaschnitz von Weinberg, Guido

1965 Kleine Schriften zur Struktur, ausgewählte Schriften, Band 1. Berlin: Gebr. Mann.

Krantz, Emile

1898 Essai sur l'esthetique de Descartes.

Matz, Friedrich

1950 Geschichte der griechischen Kunst, Band 1, Die geometrische und früharchaische Form. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann.

Morris, Charles William

1939 "Foundations of the Theory of Signs," in International Encyclopedia of Unified Science. Edited by Otto Neurath et al., 77-137.

Munro, Thomas

1963 Evolution in the Arts and Other Theories of Culture History. Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art.

Robinson, Jenefer

1981 Style and Significance in Art History and Art Criticism. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 40: 6 14

Rudner, Richard

1951 On Semiotic Aesthetics. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 10(1):6777. (Reprinted in 1967.)

Weitz, Morris

1956 The Role of Theory in Aesthetics. The Journal of Aesthetic Criticism 15(1):27-35. (Reprinted in 1967.)

Wölfflin, Heinrich

1932 Principles of Art History, 7th ed., trans. M. D. Hottinger. London: G. Bell and Sons.

Wollheim, Richard

1968 Art and Its Objects. New York: Harper and Row.

1974 Giovanni Morelli and the Origins of Scientific Connoisseurship. In On Art and the Mind, by R. Wollheim, pp. 177-201. Harvard University Press, Cambridge

1979 Pictorial style: two views. In The Concept of Style, edited by Berel Lang, pp. 129 45. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press

1980 Art and its Objects, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Cultural Anthropology and Style

Adams, Marie Jeanne.

1973. Structural Aspects of a Village Art. American Anthropologist 75(1):265-79.

Boas, Franz

1927 Primitive Art. Institutt for Sammenligende Kulturforskning Series B volume eight. Oslo.

Bohannan, Paul

1961 Artist and Critic in a West African society, in The Artist in Tribal Society, edited by M. W. Smith, pp. 85-94. Free Press of Glencoe, New York.

Bunzel, Ruth

1929 The Pueblo Potter: A Study of Creative Imagination in Primitive Art. Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology 8. Columbia University Press, New York.

Burling, Robbins

1964 Cognition and Componential Analysis: God's Truth or Hocus-pocus? American Anthropologist 66(1):20-28.

Dark, Philip

1958 Mixtec Ethnohistory: a Method for the Analysis of the Codical Art. London: Oxford University Press.

1967 The Study of Ethno-aesthetics: The Visual Arts, in Essays on the Verbal and Visual Arts. edited by June Helm,131-148. Proceedings of the 1966 spring meeting of the American Ethnological Society.

Faris, James C.

1972 Nuba Personal Art. Toronto: University of Toronto.

Fischer, J. L.

1961. Art Styles as Cultural Cognitive Maps. American Anthropologist 63(1):79-93.

Geoghegan, William H.

1971 Information Processing Systems in Culture, in Explorations in Mathematical Anthropology. edited by Paul Kay, pp. 4-35., Mass. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge.

Glassie, Henry.

1975. Folk Housing in Middle Virginia: Structural Analysis of Historic Artifacts. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Goehring, Heinz

1967 Generative Grammatik and Kulturanthropologie. Anthropos 62:802-814.

Goodenough, Ward H.

1967 Componential Analysis. Science 156 (3779):1203-1209.

1970 Description and Comparison in Cultural Anthropology . Chicago: Aldine.

Haeberlin, H. K., James A. Teit, Helen H. Roberts

1928 Coiled Basketry in British Columbia and Surrounding Region. Forty-first Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology 1919-24, pp.119484.

Hatcher, Evelyn Payne

1974. Visual Metaphors: A Formal Analysis of Navajo Art. American Ethnological Society Monograph no. 58. St. Paul: West.

Hawkes, Terence.

1977. Structuralism and Semiotics. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hodder, Ian.

1977. The Distribution of Material Culture Items in the Baringo District, Western Kenya. Man, n.s., 12:239-69.

1982. Symbols in Action: Ethnoarchaeological Studies of Material Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Holm, Bill

1965 Northwest Coast Indian Art. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Kaeppler, Adrienne L.

1978. Melody, Drone and Decoration: Underlying Structures and Surface Manifestations in Tongan Art and Society. In Art in Society, edited by M. Greenhalgh and V. Megaw, 261-74. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Kaplan, Flora

1994 A Mexican Folk Pottery Tradition: Cognition and Style in Material Culture in the Valley of Puebla. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.

Knight, G. H.

1984. The Geometry of Maori Art. Part 1: Rafter Patterns. New Zealand Mathematics Magazine 21(3):36-40. Part 2: Weaving Patterns. New Zealand Mathematics Magazine 21(3):80-86.

Korn, Sheila M.

1978. The Formal Analysis of Visual Systems as Exemplified by a Study of Abelam Painting. In Art in Society, edited by M. Greenhalgh and V. Megaw, 161-73. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Kroeber, A. L.

1957 Style and Civilizations. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

Maranda, Pierre.

1972. Structuralism in Cultural Anthropology. In Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 1, edited by B. J. Siegel and others, 329-48. Palo Alto, Calif.: Annual Reviews.

Pike, Kenneth L.

1967 Language in Relation to a Unified Theory of the Structure of Human Behavior (revised edition). The Hague: Mouton.

Roe, Peter G.

1980. Art and Residence among the Shipibo Indians of Peru: A Study in Microacculturation. American Anthropologist 82(1):42-71.

Schapiro, Meyer.

1962. Style. In Anthropology Today: Selections, edited by Sol Tax, 278-303. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Smith, Marian W., editor

1961 The Artist in Tribal Society. New York: Free Press.

Turner, Victor

1962 Chihamba, the White Spirit: A Ritual Drama of the Ndembu. Manchester: Manchester University Press. (Published on behalf of the Livingstone Institute.)

1967 The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

1969 The Ritual Process: Structure and Antistructure. Chicago: Aldine.

Watt, William C.

1966. Morphology of the Nevada Cattlebrands and their Blazons. National Bureau of Standards Report no. 9050. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.

Wiessner, Polly

1982a Beyond Willow Smoke and Dogs' Tails: A Comment on Binford's Analysis of Hunter-gatherer Settlement Systems. American Antiquity 47: 171-78

1982b Risk, reciprocity, and social influence on !Kung San economies. In Politics and History in Band Societies, edited by Eleanor Leacock and Richard Lee, pp. 6184. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

1983 Style and Social Information in Kalahari San Projectile Points. American Antiquity 49 (2): 253-76

1984 Reconsidering the Behavioral Basis for Style: A Case Study among the Kalahari San. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 3: 190-234

1985 Style or isochrestic variation? A reply to Sackett. American Antiquity 50 (1): 160 66.

1988 Style and changing relations between the individual and society. In The Meaning of Things: Material Culture and Symbolic Expression, edited by Ian Hodder. London: Allen &Unwin

Style in Archaeology

Amsden, Charles.

1936. An Analysis of Hohokam Pottery Design. Medallion Paper 23. Globe, Ariz.: Gila Pueblo.

Binford, L. R.

1962 Archeology as Anthropology. American Antiquity 28(2):217-225.

Friederich, Margaret Hardin

1970 Design Structure and Social Interaction: Archeological Implications of an Ethnographic Analysis. American Antiquity 35(3).

Gardin, J. C.

1958 Four Codes for the Description of Artifacts: An Essay in Archeological Technique and Theory. American Anthropologist 60: 335-357.

1967 Methods for the Descriptive Analysis of Archeological Materials. American Antiquity 32(1):13-30.

Hardin, Margaret Ann.

1977. Individual Style in San Jose Pottery Painting: The Role of Deliberate Choice. In The Individual in Prehistory, edited by J. Hill and J. Gunn, 109-36. New York: Academic Press.

Hymes, Dell

1969 Linguistic Models in Archeology, in Archeologie et Calculateurs, Problemes Semiologiques et Mathematiques. edited by J. C. Gardin. Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

Kroeber, A. L.

1956 Toward Definition of the Nazca Style. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 43(4):327432.

Muller, Jon

1966 An Experimental Theory of Stylistic Analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University.

1971 "Style and Culture Contact," in Man across the Sea. edited by C. L. Riley et al., 6678.

1973 Review of Broken K. Pueblo by James N. Hill. American Antiquity 38(2):249251.

1977. Individual Variation in Art Styles. In The Individual in Prehistory, edited by J. Hill and J. Gunn, 23-39. New York: Academic Press.

1979 Structural Studies of Art Styles. In The Visual Arts: Plastic and Graphic, edited by J. Cordwell, pp. 139- 211 (& pp. 7-21). Mouton, The Hague.

Menzel, Dorothy.

1976. Pottery Style and Society in Ancient Peru. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Menzel, D., J. H. Rowe, L. E. Dawson

1964 The Paracas Pottery of Ica, A Study in Style in Time. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 50.

Petrie, Flinders.

1930. Decorative Patterns of the Ancient World . British School of Archaeology in Egypt. (Reprinted in 1974 as Decorative Patterns of the Ancient World for Craftsmen. New York: Dover.)

Plog, Fred.

1977. Archaeology and the Individual. In The Individual in Prehistory, edited by J. Hill and J. Gunn, 13-21. New York: Academic Press.

Raymond, J. Scott, Warren R. DeBoer, and Peter G. Roe

1975 Cumancaya: A Peruvian Ceramic Tradition. Occasional Papers, 2. Calgary: Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary

Redman, C.

1977 The Analytical Individual and Prehistoric Style Variability. In The Individual in Prehistory, edited by James N. Hill and Joel Gunn, pp. 4153. New York: Academic Press

Rice, Prudence

1987 Pottery Analysis: A Sourcebook. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Roark, Richard Paul

1965 From Monumental to Proliferous in Nazca Pottery. Ñawpa Pacha 3:1-92.

Rowe, J. H.

1959 Archeological Dating and Cultural Process. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 15(4):317-324.

1961 Stratigraphy and Seriation. American Antiquity 26(3):324-330.

1962 Chavin Art: An Inquiry into its Form and Meaning. New York: The Museum of Primitive Art.

Sackett, James R.

1973 Style, Function and Artifact Variability in Palaeolithic Assemblages. In The Explanation of Culture Change, edited by Colin Renfrew, pp. 317-25. London: Duckworth.

1977 The Meaning of Style in Archaeology. American Antiquity 42: 369-80

1982 Approaches to Style in Lithic Archaeology. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 1: 59-112.

1983 From deMortillet to Bordes: A Century of French Palaeolithic Research. In Towards a History of Archaeology, edited by G. Daniel, pp. 59 112. London: Thames and Hudson

1985a Style and Ethnicity in the Kalahari: A Reply to Wiessner. American Antiquity 50 (1): 154-59

1985b Style, ethnicity and Stone Tools. In Status, Structure, and Stratification: Current Archaeological Reconstructions, edited by M. Thompson, M. T. Marcia, and F. J . Kense, pp. 277-82. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Chacmool Conference, The University of Calgary

1986a Style, Function and Assemblage Variability: A Reply to Binford. American Antiquity 51: 628 34

1986b Isochrestism and Style: A Clarification. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 5:266 77

Shepard, Anna O.

1948. The Symmetry of Abstract Design with Special Reference to Ceramic Decoration. Contribution no. 47, Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication no. 574.

1956. Ceramics for the Archaeologist. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication no. 609.

1963 Ceramics for the Archaeologist. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication 609.

Stewart, Joe D.

1979. The Formal Definition of Decorative Traditions in the Jornada Area: A Case Study of Lincoln Black-on-Red Designs. In Jornada Mogollon Archaeology: Proceedings of the First Jornada Conference, edited by P. H. Beckett and R. N. Wiseman, 295-344. Las Cruces: Cultural Resources Management Division, New Mexico State University.

1980. Further Suggestions on the Analysis of Nubian Ceramic Decoration. Current Anthropology 21(4):539-40.

1983. Structural Analysis of Three Rivers Redware Designs. Kiva 49(1-2):3965.

Washburn, Dorothy Koster.

1977a. A Symmetry Analysis of Upper Gila Area Ceramic Design. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 68. Cambridge: Harvard University.

1977b. A Symmetry Classification of Pueblo Ceramic Design. In Discovering Past Behavior: Experiments in the Archaeology of the American Southwest, edited by Paul Grebinger, 101-21. New York: Gordon Breach.

1980. The Mexican Connection: Cylinder Jars from the Valley of Oaxaca. In New Frontiers in the Archaeology and Ethnohistory of the Greater Southwest, edited by Carroll L. Riley and Basil C. Hedrick 70-84. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, vol. 72, no. 4.

1983a. Toward a Theory of Structural Style in Art. In Structure and Cognition in Art, edited by D. Washburn, 1-7. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1983b. Symmetry Analysis of Ceramic Design: Two Tests of the Method on Neolithic Material from Greece and the Aegean. In Structure and Cognition in Art, edited by D. Washburn, 138-64. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1984. The Usefulness of Typological Analysis for Understanding Aspects of Southwestern Prehistory: Some Conflicting Returns from Design Analysis. In Regional Analysis of Prehistoric Ceramic Variation: Contemporary Studies of the Cibola Whitewares, edited by A. Sullivan and J. Hantman, 120-34. Anthropological Research Papers, no. 31. Tempe: Arizona State University.

1986a. Symmetry Analysis of Yurok, Karok and Hupa Indian Basket Designs. Empirical Studies of the Arts 4(1):19-45.

1986b. Pattern Symmetry and Colored Repetition in Cultural Contexts. In Symmetry: Unifying Human Understanding, edited by Istvan Hargittai, 767-81. New York: Pergamon.

Washburn, Dorothy K., and R. G. Matson

1985. Use of Multidimensional Scaling to Display Sensitivity of Symmetry Analysis of Patterned Design to Spatial and Chronological Change: Examples from Anasazi Prehistory. In Decoding Prehistoric Ceramics, edited by B. Nelson, 75-101. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Whallon, Robert

1968 Investigations of Late Prehistoric Social Organization in New York State. In New Perspectives in Archaeology, edited by S. R. and L. R. Binford, pp. 223-4. Chicago: Aldine Press

 

Zaslow, Bert.

1977. A Guide to Analyzing Prehistoric Ceramic Decorations by Symmetry and Pattern Mathematics. In Pattern Mathematics and Archaeology. Anthropological Research Papers, no. 2. Tempe: Arizona State University.

1980. Mirror Orientation in Hohokam Designs and the Chronology of Early Hohokam Phases. The Kiva 45(3):211-25.

1981. Pattern Dissemination in the Prehistoric Southwest and Mesoamerica: A Comparison of Hohokam Decorative Patterns with Patterns from the Upper Gila Area and from the Valley of Oaxaca. Anthropological Research Papers, no. 25. Tempe: Arizona State University.

Zaslow, Bert, and Alfred E. Dittert.

1977a. Pattern Theory Used as an Archaeological Tool: A Preliminary Statement. Southwestern Lore 43(1):18-24.

1977b. Pattern Mathematics and Archaeology. Anthropological Research Papers, no. 2. Tempe: Arizona State University.

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Archaeological Style and Communication Theory

Braun, David and S. Plog

1982 Evolution of "Tribal" Social Networks: Theory and Prehistoric Noorth American Evidence. American Antiquity 47:504-25.

Conkey, M. and C. Hastorf, editors

1990 The Uses of Style in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Engelbrecht, William.

1974. The Iroquois: Archaeological Patterning on the Tribal Level. World Archaeology 6:52-65.

Plog, Stephen

1980 Stylistic Variation in Prehistoric Ceramics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Sackett, James R.

1973 Style, Function and Artifact Variability in Palaeolithic Assemblages. In The Explanation of Culture Change, edited by Colin Renfrew, pp. 317-25. London: Duckworth.

1977 The Meaning of Style in Archaeology. American Antiquity 42: 369-80

1982 Approaches to Style in Lithic Archaeology. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 1: 59-112.

1985a Style and Ethnicity in the Kalahari: A Reply to Wiessner. American Antiquity 50 (1): 154-59

1985b Style, Ethnicity and Stone Tools. In Status, Structure, and Stratification: Current Archaeological Reconstructions, edited by M. Thompson, M. T. Marcia, and F. J . Kense, pp. 277-82. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Chacmool Conference, The University of Calgary

1986a Style, Function and Assemblage Variability: A Reply to Binford. American Antiquity 51: 628-34.

1986b Isochrestism and Style: A Clarification. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 5:266-77.

1990 Style and Ethnicity in Archaeology: The Case for Isochrestism. In The Uses of Style in Archaeology, edited by M. Conkey and C. Hastorf, pp. 32-43. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Wasley, William W.

1959 Cultural Implications of Style Trends in Southwestern Prehistoric Pottery. (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona.) Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.

Wiessner, Polly

1982a Beyond Willow Smoke and Dogs' Tails: A Comment on Binford's Analysis of Hunter-gatherer Settlement Systems. American Antiquity 47: 171-78

1982b Risk, reciprocity, and social influence on !Kung San economies. In Politics and History in Band Societies, edited by Eleanor Leacock and Richard Lee, pp. 6184. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

1983 Style and Social Information in Kalahari San Projectile Points. American Antiquity 49 (2): 253-76

1984 Reconsidering the Behavioral Basis for Style: A Case Study among the Kalahari San. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 3: 190-234

1985 Style or isochrestic variation? A reply to Sackett. American Antiquity 50 (1): 160 66.

1988 Style and changing relations between the individual and society. In The Meaning of Things: Material Culture and Symbolic Expression, edited by Ian Hodder. London: Allen &Unwin

Whallon, Robert

1968 Investigations of Late Prehistoric Social Organization in New York State. In New Perspectives in Archaeology, edited by S. R. and L. R. Binford, pp. 223-4. Chicago: Aldine Press

Wobst, H. Martin

1976 Locational Relationships in Paleolithic Society. Journal of Human Evolution 5:49-58

1977 Stylistic behavior and Information Exchange. In For the Director: Research Essays in Honor of James B. Griffin, edited by Charles E. Cleland (Museum of Anthropology Anthropological Paper 61), pp. 317-42. Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan

Others

Clowes, M. B.

1969 "Transformational Grammars and the Organization of Pictures," in Automatic Interpretation and Classification of Images. edited by A. Grasselli. London: Academic Press.

Dye, Daniel Sheets.

1937. A Grammar of Chinese Lattice, Vols. 1, 2. Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series, vol. 5. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. (Reprint, 1974. New York: Dover.)

Kirsch, Russell A.

1964 Computer Interpretation of English Text and Picture Designs. IEEE Transactions on Electronic Computers EC-13(4):363-376.

Narasimhan, R.

1963 Syntactic Descriptions of Pictures and Gestalt Phenomena of Visual Perception. Digital Computer Laboratory Report 142. University of Illinois.

1969 Picture languages. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Bombay-5, Computer Group, Technical Report 75.

Rankin, B. K.

1965 A Linguistic Study of the Formation of Chinese Characters. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.

Rankin, B. K., W. A. Sillars, R. W. Hsu

1965 On the Pictorial Structure of the Chinese Character.National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 254.

Watt, William C.

1966 Morphology of the Nevada Cattlebrands and their Blazons, part one. National Bureau of Standards.

1967 Morphology of the Nevada cattlebrands and their blazons, part two. Pittsburgh: Department of Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon University.

Symmetry Analysis

Washburn, D. K., editor

1983Structure and Cognition in Art, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Washburn, Dorothy K and D.W. Crowe

1988 Symmetries of Culture: Theory and Practice of Plane Pattern Analysis. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Architectural Shape Grammars (Stiny et al.)

Downing, F. and U. Flemming

1981 The Bungalows of Buffalo. Environment and Planning B 8, 269-293.

Flemming, U.

1981 The Secret of the Casa Giuliani Frigerio. Environment and Planning B 8, 87-96.

Gips, J.

1975 Shape Grammars and their Uses: Artificial Perception, Shape Generation, and Computer Aesthetics. Birkhauser, Basel.

Gips, J. and George Stiny

1980 Production Systems and Grammars: A Uniform Characterization. Environment and Planning B 7, 399-408.

Knight, T W.

1980 The Generation of Hepplewhite-style Chairback Designs. Environment and Planning B 7, 227238.

1981 The Forty-One Steps: the Language of Japanese Tea-room Designs. Environment and Planning B 8, 97-114.

1981 Languages of Design: from Known to New. Environment and Planning B 8, 213-238.

1983 Transformations of Languages of Designs Parts I, II, and III. Planning and Design 10, 125-177.

Koning, H. and J. Eizenberg

1981 The Language of the Prairie: Frank Lloyd Wright's prairie houses. Environment and Planning B 8, 295-323.

Krishnamurti R.

1980 The Arithmetic of Shapes Environment and Planning B 7, 463-484.

1981 The Construction of Shapes Environment and Planning B 8, 5-40.

1982 SGI: A Shape Grammar Interpreter, User Manual. The Open University, Milton Keynes, England.

March L and George Stiny

1985 Spatial systems in Architecture and Design: Some History and Logic. Planning and Design 12.

March L, George Stiny (eds.),

19?? Shape: Languages, Designs and Configurations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Stiny, George

1975 Pictorial and Formal Aspects of Shape and Shape Grammars: on Computer Generation of Aesthetic Objects Birkhauser, Stuttgart.

1976 Two Exercises in Formal Composition. Environment and Planning B 3, 187-210.

1977 Ice-ray: A Note on the Generation of Chinese Lattice Designs. Environment and Planning B 4, 8998.

1978 Generating and Measuring Aesthetic Forms. Handbook of Perception, Volume X. Academic Press, New York.

1980 Introduction to Shape and Shape Grammars. Environment and Planning B 7, 343-351.

1980 Kindergarten Grammars: Designing with Froebel's Building Gifts. Environment and Planning B 7, 409-462.

1981 A Note on the Description of Designs. Environment and Planning B 8, 257-267.

1982 Spatial Relations and Grammars. Environment and Planning B 9, 113- 114.

1982 Shapes are Individuals Environment & Planning B 9, 359-367.

1985 Designs and Other Descriptions. Planning and Design, 12.

Stiny, George and J. Gips

1972 Shape Grammars and the Generative Specification of Painting and Sculpture. Information Processing 71, 1460-1465.

1978 Algorithmic Aesthetics: Computer Models for Criticism and Design in the Arts. University of California Press, Berkeley.

1978 An Evaluation of Palladian plans. Environment and Planning B 5, 199-206.

Stiny, George and L March

1981 Design Machines. Environment and Planning B 5, 213-238.

Stiny, George and W.J. Mitchell

1978 The Palladian Grammar. Environment and Planning B 5, 5-18.

1978 Counting Palladian Plans. Environment and Planning B 5, 189-198.

1980 The Grammar of Paradise: On the Generation of Mughul Gardens. Environment and Planning B 7, 209-226.

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