1. INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE

Lowie, Robert

1937 The History of Ethnological Theory Holt, rinehart, and Winston, New York.

The Boasian (i.e., culture-historical) view of the history of cultural anthropology. At the time this was written, social anthropology was mostly British. Americanists were ethnologists or cultural anthropologists. Harris, Marvin

1968 The Rise of Anthropological Theory. Thomas Y. Crowell, New York.

A culture materialist view of the history of anthropology. Very controversial in many interpretations.

McGee, R. Jon and R. L. Warms

1996 Anthropological Theory: An Introductory History. Mayfield, Mountain View CA

The readings text for 500E. Short, original works. Assignments in this will be cited as McGee and Warms below.

Daniel, Glyn E.

1975 A Hundred and Fifty Years of Archaeology. Duckworth, London.

In fact, the second edition of One Hundred Years of Archaeology, published in 1950, showing how fast archaeology progresses! An environmental explanation of Processual Archaeology in the United States is one of many "gems".

Daniel, Glyn E. and A. C. Renfrew

1988 The Idea of Prehistory. Revised edition. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

The older editions by Glyn Daniel alone were the standard British view of archaeology and were full of many treasures of arrogant parochialism. The new version is straighter, better informed, more accurate, and much less interesting.

Willey, Gordon R. and Jeremy A. Sabloff

1993 A History of American Archaeology. Third edition. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.

This has been the standard, culture-historical view of the history of archaeology. It is still the most objective view, within its bounds and goals. Hereafter, Willey and Sabloff in assignments.

Trigger, Bruce G.

1989 A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

This is a partisan view of archaeological theory, but one that has value largely because of its strong (even if sometimes a little off-base) opinions on ethical and general theoretical issues. Its value is greatest if it is used in conjunction with something like Willey and Sabloff. Hereafter, assignments in this are simply given as Trigger.

 

2. PRE-1930 DEVELOPMENTS AND GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE: A SYNOPSIS

Trigger, Chs. 1-4

Willey and Sabloff Chapter 1-4.

Spencer (1860), Tylor (1871), Marx and Engels(1845-6) papers in McGee and Warms (§ 1, 2, 4)

Background Sources:

Lubbock, John (Lord Avebury)

1865 Pre-historic Times, as Illustrated by Ancient Remains, and the Manners and Customs of Modern Savages. Williams and Norgate, London.

This volume went through multiple editions up to 1913.

Thomas, Cyrus

1894 Report on the Mound Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology. Bureau of American Ethnology Annual Report 12.

3. CULTURE HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY

Trigger, Ch. 5

Willey and Sabloff 4-5

Sapir, Edward

1916 Time Perspective in Aboriginal American Culture, A Study in Method. Canada Department of Mines, Geological Survey, Memoir 90, No. 13, Anthropological Series. Ottawa.

Boas (1920) and Kroeber (1919) papers in McGee and Warms (10, 11)

Willey, Gordon R. and Philip Phillips

1958 Method and Theory in American Archaeology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Read Introduction and Part I (pp. 1-57).

This is the central text defining the culture-historical concepts employed in practical, every-day archaeology right through the processual and postprocessual eras.

4. CLASSIFICATION AND TYPOLOGY

 

Conklin (27) and Tyler (28) in McGee and Warms

Barnett, Homer G.

1953 Appendix "On Things" in Innovation: The Basis of Cultural Change. McGraw-Hill.

Dunnell, R. C.

1971 Sabloff and Smith's The Importance of both Analytic and Taxonomic Classification in the Type-Variety System." American Antiquity 36:115-118.

Ford, James A.

1938 A Chronological Method Applicable to the Southeast. American Antiquity 3:260-264.

1954 The type concept revisited. American Anthropologist 56: 42-54. (including comments)

1954 Comment on A. C. Spaulding "Statistical Techniques for the Discovery of Artifact Types." American Antiquity 19:390-391.

Krieger, Alex D.

1960 Archaeological typology in theory and practice. In Men and Cultures, edited by Anthony F. Wallace, pp. 141-151. Philadelphia.

Rouse, Irving

1960 The classification of artifacts in archaeology. American Antiquity 23: 313-323.

Sabloff, J. A. and R. E. Smith

1969 The importance of both analytic and taxonomic classification in the type- variety system. American Antiquity 34: 278-285. (Also read R. C. Dunnell's comments on this article in American Antiquity 36: 115-118, 1971).

Spaulding, Albert C.

1953 Statistical techniques for the discovery of artifact types. American Antiquity 18: 305-313.

1953 Review of Measurements of Some Prehistoric Design Developments in the Southeastern States. by James A. Ford. American Anthropologist 55:588-591.

1954 Response to J. Ford's Comment on A. C. Spaulding "Statistical Techniques for the Discovery of Artifact Types." American Antiquity 19:391-393..

Wheat, J. B., J. C. Gifford, and W. W. Wasley

1958 Ceramic variety, type cluster, and ceramic system in southwestern pottery analysis. American Antiquity 24: 34-47.

Other and Recommended Readings:

Royal Anthropological Institute

1951 Notes and Queries on Anthropology [572.01R888N1951]

Murdock, George P.

1949 Social Structure. Macmillan, New York.

Murdock, George P. et al.

1971 Outline of Cultural Materials. 4th revised ed., Human Relations Area Files. New Haven.

Harris, Marvin

1964 The Nature of Cultural Things. Random House, New York.

1968 Chapter 20 in Harris 1968 (see Introductory list)

Clarke, David L.

1968 Chapters on typology in Analytical Archaeology. Methuen, London.

Brew, J. O.

1946 The Use and Abuse of taxonomy. In Archaeology of Alkali Ridge, Southeastern Utah. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol. 21, pp. 44-66. Cambridge.

Hill, James N. and R. K. Evans

1972 A model for classification and typology. In Models in Archaeology, edited by David L. Clarke, pp. 231-271. Methuen, London.

Phillips, Philip, James A. Ford, and James B. Griffin

1951 Archaeological survey in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, 1940-1947 Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University. vol. 25.

Phillips, Philip

1970 Archaeological Survey in the Lower Yazoo Basin, Mississippi, 1949-1955. Peabody Museum Cambridge, Mass.,

Schiffer, M. B.

1972 Archaeological Context and Systemic Context. American Antiquity 37:156-163.

 

5. THE CONCERN WITH CONTEXT AND FUNCTION

Trigger, Bruce G.

1989 Chapter 7 in A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Willey, Gordon R. and Jeremy A. Sabloff

1993 Chapter 5 in A History of American Archaeology. Third edition. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.

Malinowski (13) and Radcliffe-Brown (14) in McGee and Warms.

Steward, Julian H. and F. M. Setzler

1938 Function and Configuration in Archaeology. American Antiquity 40(1):4-10.

Kluckhohn, Clyde

1940 The conceptual structure in Middle American studies. In The Maya and Their Neighbors, edited by A. M. Tozzer, pp. 41-51. Appleton-Century Co., New York.

(This is also found in Mark P. Leone edited 1972 Contemporary Archaeology: A Guide To Theory and Contributions, pp. 78-84. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale. 1972).

Bennett, J. W.

1943 Recent Developments in the Functional Interpretation of Archaeological Data. American Antiquity 9: 208-219.

Taylor, W. W.

1948 A Study of Archaeology. American Anthropological Association Memoirs 69. [in print with the CAI).

Steward, Julian H.

1949 Cultural Causality and Law: A Trial Formulation of the Development of Early Civilizations. American Anthropologist 51:1-27.

Other:

Kluckhohn, Clyde and Reiter, Paul, eds.

1939 Preliminary Report on the 1937 Excavations, Bc 50-51, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. University of New Mexico Anthropological Series, vol. 3, No. 2, Albuquerque.

Willey, Gordon R.

1948 Functional Analysis of Horizon Styles in Peruvian Archaeology. In A Reappraisal of Peruvian Archaeology, assembled by Wendell C. Bennett, pp. 8-15. Society for American Archaeology, Memoir 4.

 

6. ECOLOGICAL APPROACH AND NEOEVOLUTIONISM UNDERLYING PROCESSUAL ARCHAEOLOGY

Clarke, Grahame

1953 The Economic Approach to Prehistory. Proceedings of the British Academy 39: 215-238 (This is also found in Mark P. Leone edited Contemporary Archaeology: A Guide to Theory and Contributions, pp. 62- 77. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale. 1972).

Fried, Morton

1960 On the evolution of social stratification and the state. In Culture in History, edited by Stanley Diamond, pp. 713-731. Columbia University Press, New York.

Trigger, Bruce G.

1989 Chapter 6 (focusing on V. Gordon Childe) in A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Trigger, Bruce G.

1971 Archaeology and Ecology. World Archaeology 2(3): 321-336.

Sanders, William T. and Barbara Price

1968 Part I: Civilization as an ecological system. Mesoamerica: the Evolution of a Civilization pp. 37-45, 69-97. Random House, New York.

Watson, Patty Jo, LeBlanc, Steven A., and Charles L. Redman

1971 Chapter 4: The Ecological View of Culture. In Explanation in Archaeology: An Explicitly Scientific Approach. pp. 88-107. Columbia University Press, New York.

 

Recommended Readings:

Barth, Frederick

1950 Ecologic adaptation and cultural change in archaeology. American Antiquity 15: 338-339.

Carneiro, Robert L.

1973 The Four Faces of Evolution. In Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology, edited by John J. Honigmann, pp. 89-110. Rand McNally and Co., Chicago.

Coe, Michael D. and Kent V. Flannery

1964 Microenvironments and Mesoamerican prehistory. Science 143: 650-654.

Earle, Timothy

1987 Chiefdoms in archaeological and ethnohistorical perspective. Annual Review of Anthropology 16: 279-308.

Flannery, Kent V.

1977 Review of The Valley of Mexico, edited by Eric Wolf. Science 196: 759- 761.

Sahlins, Marshall D.

1962 Evolution: specific and general. In Evolution and Culture, edited by Marshall D. Sahlins and Elman R. Service, pp. 12-44. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

1964 Culture and environment: the study of cultural ecology. In Horizons in anthropology, edited by Sol Tax, pp. 132-147. Aldine, Chicago.

Service, Elman R.

1975 Chapters 4, 16 and 17. Origins of the State and Civilization: The Process of Cultural Evolution. W. W. Norton & Co., New York.

Steward, Julian H.

1951 Levels of sociocultural integration: an operational concept. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 7: 374-390.

White, Leslie

1943 Energy and the evolution of culture. American Anthropologist 45: 335- 356. Or, 1969 Energy and the evolution of culture. In Science of Culture, pp. 363-393. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York.

 

7. THE CONCERN WITH CONTEXT AND FUNCTION

 

McGee and Warms reader: sections on Cultural Ecology and Ecological Materialism.

Willey, Gordon R. and Philip Phillips

1958 Introduction in Method and Theory in American Archaeology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 1-7.

Trigger, Bruce G.

1989 Chapter 8 in A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Willey, Gordon R. and Jeremy A. Sabloff

1993 Chapter 6 in A History of American Archaeology. Third edition. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.

Precursors & Alternative Views:

Caldwell, Joseph R.

1959 The New American Archaeology. Science 129: 303-307. (Also in J. R. Caldwell, 1966, New Roads to Yesterday, Basic Books. pp. 333-347)

Taylor, Walter W.

1969 Review of Binford and Binford, New Perspectives in Archeology. Science 165:382-384.

1972 Old Wine and New Skins: A Contemporary Parable. In Contemporary Archaeology: A Guide to Theory and Contributions, edited by Mark P. Leone, pp. 28-33. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.

Chang, K.. C.

1967 Rethinking Archaeology. Random House, New York.

Processual Archaeology:

Binford, Lewis R.

1962 Archaeology as Anthropology. American Antiquity 28: 217-225. [also in Mark P. Leone, editor, Contemporary Archaeology: A Guide to Theory and Contributions, pp. 93-101. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale. Hereafter Leone]

1964 A Consideration of Archaeological Research Design. American Antiquity 29: 425-441. [also Leone, pp. 158-]

1965 Archaeological Systematics and the Study of Culture Process. American Antiquity 31: 203-210. [also Leone, pp. 125-]

1968 Some Comments on Historical Versus Processual Archaeology. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 24: 267-275.

1972 An Archaeological Perspective New York, Seminar Press,

Binford, Sally R. and Lewis R. Binford

1968 New Perspectives in Archeology. Chicago, Aldine Pub. Co.

Flannery, Kent V.

1967 Culture History vs. Culture Process: A Debate in American Archaeology. Scientific American 217: 119-122. [Also in Leone, pp. 102-107.]

Hill, James N.

1966 A Prehistoric Community in Eastern Arizona. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 22:9-30.

Martin, Paul S.

1971 The Revolution in Archaeology. American Antiquity 36:1-8.

The Binford Readings are also in Binford's An Archaeological Perspective.

 

Others:

Leone, Mark P.

1972 Issues in Anthropological Archaeology. In Contemporary Archaeology: A Guide to Theory and Contributions, edited by Mark P. Leone, pp. 14-27. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.

Rathje, William L.

1971 The Origin and Development of Lowland Classic Maya Civilization. American Antiquity 36:275-285.

8. SETTLEMENT PATTERN/SPATIAL ANALYSIS

Trigger, Bruce G.

1967 Settlement Archaeology - Its Goals And Promise. American Antiquity 32: 149-161.

Plog, Fred

1974 Settlement Patterns and Social History. In Frontiers of Anthropology, edited by M. J. Leaf, pp. 68-91. Van Nostrand, New York.

Oral Reports:

Willey, Gordon R.

1974 The Viru Valley Settlement Pattern Study. In Archaeological Researches in Retrospect, edited by Gordon R. Willey, pp. 149-179. Winthrop, Cambridge.

Trigger, Bruce G.

1968 The determinants of settlement patterns. In Settlement Archaeology, edited by K. C. Chang, pp. 53-78. National Press, Palo Alto.

Recommended Readings:

Hodder, Ian and Clive Orton

1976 Chapter 4: Some Models for Settlement Patterns. Spatial Analysis in Archaeology, pp. 53-73. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Parsons, Jeffrey R.

1972 Archaeological settlement patterns. Annual Review of Anthropology 2: 127-150.

Carr, Christopher

1984 The nature of organization of intra-site archaeological records and spatial analytic approaches to their investigation. In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, edited by Michael B. Schiffer, Vol. 7, pp. 103-133. Academic Press, New York.

 

8. FUNDAMENTALS OF PROCESSUAL ARCHAEOLOGY (AN INTERLUDE)

 

Settlement

Willey, Gordon R. 1974 The Viru Valley Settlement Pattern Study. In Archaeological Researches in Retrospect, edited by Gordon R. Willey, pp. 149-179. Winthrop, Cambridge.

Trigger, Bruce G.

1968 The Determinants of Settlement Patterns. In Settlement Archaeology, edited by K. C. Chang, pp. 53-78. National Press, Palo Alto.

Clarke, David L., ed.

1977 Spatial Archaeology. Academic Press, New York.

Chang, Kwang-Chih

1968 Settlement Archaeology. National, Palo Alto

Geography

Harvey, David

1969 Explanation in Geography. Edward Arnold, London.

Chorley, R.J. and P. Haggett, eds.

1967 Models in Geography. Methuen, London.

 

Cultural Materialism and Evolutionism

Harris, Marvin

1980 Cultural Materialism: The Struggle for a Science of Culture. Vintage.

Steward, Julian H.

1963 Theory of Culture Change. University of Illinois.

White, Leslie

1943 Energy and the Evolution of Culture. American Anthropologist 45:335-356.

1949 Science of Culture. Farrar, Strauss, NY.

 

Systems Theory

Bertalanffy, Ludwig von

1968 General System Theory. Geo. Braziller.

Clarke, David L.

1968 Analytical Archaeology. Methuen.

 

Philosophy of Science

Hempel, Carl

1966 Philosophy of Natural Science. Foundations of Philosophy Series. Prentice-Hall.

Popper, Karl

1959 The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Basic Books.

Wylie, Alison

1985 Between Philosophy and Archaeology. American Antiquity 50:478-490.

 

9. INTERPRETIVE SOURCES AND MIDDLE RANGE THEORY: ETHNOARCHAEOLOGY, EXPERIMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY AND FORMATION STUDIES

Middle Range Theory

Merton, Robert K.

1967 On Sociological Theories of the Middle Range. In On Sociological Theory. pp. 39-72. Free Press, New York

Raub, L. M., and A. C. Goodyear

1984 Middle range theory in archaeology: A critical review of origins and applications. American Antiquity 49:255-268.

Binford, Lewis R.

1981 Middle Range Research and the Role of Actualistic Studies. Chapter 2 in Bones, pp. 21-30. Academic Press.

Recommended:

Binford, Lewis R.

1977 For Theory Building in Archaeology: Essays on Faunal Remains, Aquatic Resources, Spatial Analysis and Systematic Modeling. Academic Press, New York.

Tschauner, Hartmut

1996 Middle range theory, behavioral archaeology, and postempiricist philosophy. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 3(1): 1-30.

Ethnographic Analogy and Ethnoarchaeology

Ascher, Robert

1961 Analogy in archaeological interpretation. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 17: 317-325.

Binford, Lewis R.

1968 Methodological considerations of the archaeological use of ethnographic data. In Man the Hunter, edited by R. Lee and I. DeVore, pp. 268-273. Aldine, Chicago.

Chang, K. C.

1967 Major aspects of the interrelationship of archaeology and ethnology. Current Anthropology 8: 227-243.

Hodder, Ian

1986 Chapter 6: An ethnohistoric example: Reconsideration of ethnoarchaeology and middle range theory. In Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology, pp. 103-117.

Tringham, Ruth

1978 Experimentation, ethnoarchaeology, and the leapfrogs in archaeological methodology. In Explorations in Ethnoarchaeology, edited by Richard A. Gould, pp. 169-199. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Wylie, Alison

1985 Reaction against analogy. In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 8, edited by Michael B. Schiffer, pp. 63-111. Academic Press, New York.

Recommended:

Gould, Richard A.

1977 Some current problems in ethnoarchaeology. In Experimental Archaeology, edited by D. Ingersoll, J. E. Yellen, and W. Macdonald, pp. 359-377. Columbia University Press, New York.

Chang, K. C.

1980 Chapter 2: beyond analogy. In Living Archaeology, pp. 29-47. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Experimental Archaeology

Ascher, Robert

1961 Experimental Archaeology. American Anthropologist 63: 793-816.

Schiffer, M. B. and J. M. Skibo

1987 Theory and experiment in the study of technological change. Current Anthropology 28: 595-622.

Recommended:

Coles, John

1979 Experimental Archaeology, pp. 1-48. Academic Press, London. Chapter 1.

Formation Processes

Ascher, Robert

1968 Time's arrow and the archaeology of a contemporary community. In Settlement Archaeology, edited by K. C. Chang, pp. 43-52. National Press, Palo Alto.

Behrensmeyer, Anna K.

1993 Discussion: Noncultural processes. In From Bones to Behavior: Ethnoarchaeological and Experimental Contributions to the Interpretation of Faunal Remains, edited by Jean Hudson, pp. 342-348. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.

Schiffer, Michael B.

1972 Archaeological context and systemic context. American Antiquity 37:156- 165.

Other Related Works:

Binford, Lewis R.

1981 Behavioral archaeology and the Pompeii premise. Journal of Anthropological Research 37:195-208.

Schiffer, Michael B.

1981 Some issues in the philosophy of archaeology. American Antiquity 46: 899-908.

1987 Site formation Processes of the Archaeological Record. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

1988 The structure of archaeological theory. American Antiquity 53: 461-485.

 

9. HUMANITIES AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCES (AN INTERLUDE)

    Hawkes, Jacquetta

    1968 The Proper Study of Mankind. Antiquity 42:255-62.

    Trigger, Bruce G.

    1970 Aims in Prehistoric Archaeology. Antiquity 44:26-37.

    Agrawal, D.P.

    1970 Archaeology and the Luddites. Antiquity 44:115-19.

    Neustupny, Evzen

    1971 Whither Archaeology? Antiquity 45:34-39.

    Isaac, Glynn LL.

    1971 Whither Archaeology? Antiquity 45:123-29.

    Watson, Richard A.

    1972 The'New Archaeology' of the 1960s. Antiquity 46:210-15.

    Other

    Hawkes, Christopher

    1954 Archaeological Theory and Method: Some Suggestions from the Old World. American Anthropologist 56:155-168.

    Piggott, Stuart

    1960 Prehistory and Evolutionary Theory. In The Evolution of Man, Vol. 2, Evolution after Darwin, edited by Sol Tax. pp. 85-97. University of Chicago Press.

    Trigger, Bruce G.

    1968 Major Concepts of Archaeology in Historical Perspective. Man 3(4):527-41.

    Harriss, J. C.

    1971 Explanation in Prehistory. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 37(1):38-55.

10. CONTEXTUAL, STRUCTURAL AND SYMBOLIC ARCHAEOLOGY

Hodder, Ian

1982 Theoretical archaeology: A reactionary view. In Symbolic and Structural Archaeology. Edited by I Hodder. Pp. 1-16. Cambridge University Press.

1986 Structuralist archaeology. Chapter 3 in Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

1986 Contextual archaeology. Chapter 7 in Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

1987 Bow ties and pet foods: Material culture and the negotiation of change in British industry. In The Archaeology of Contextual Meanings. Edited by I. Hodder. Pp. 11-19. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

1987 The contextual analysis of symbolic meanings. In The Archaeology of Contextual Meanings. Edited by I. Hodder. Pp. 1-10. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

1991 Interpretive archaeology and its role. American Antiquity 56:7-18.

Leone, Mark P.

1986 Symbolic, structural, and critical archaeology. In American Archaeology: Past and Future, edited by D. J. Meltzer, D. D. Fowler and J. A. Sabloff, eds., pp. 415-438. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Shanks, M. and C. Tilley

1982 Ideology, symbolic power and ritual communication: A reinterpretation of Neolithic mortuary practices. In Symbolic and Structural Archaeology, edited by Ian Hodder, pp. 129-154. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Other

Hodder, Ian (editor or author)

1982 Symbolic and Structural Archaeology. Cambridge University Press.

1986 Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

1987 The Archaeology of Contextual Meanings. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

1989 The Meaning of Things: Material Culture and Symbolic Expression. Unwin and Hyman, London.

Shanks, M. and C. Tilley

1987a Re-Constructing Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

1987b Social Theory and Archaeology. Polity Press, London.

 

11. CRITICAL THEORY

Wylie, Alison

1985 Putting Shakertown Back Together: Critical Theory in Archaeology. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 4: 133-147.

Yengoyan, Aram A.

1985 Digging for Symbols: The Archaeology of Everyday Life. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 51:329-334.

Shanks, M. and C. Tilley

1987 Reconstructing Archaeology: Theory and Practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

1987 Social Theory and Archaeology. Polity Press, Oxford.

or other Shanks and Tilley works.

Leone, Mark P.

1986 Symbolic, structural, and critical archaeology. In American Archaeology: Past and Future, edited by D. J. Meltzer, D. D. Fowler and J. A. Sabloff, pp. 415-438. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Leone, Mark P., Porter, Jr., Parker B., and Paul A. Shackel

1987 Toward a Critical Archaeology. Current Anthropology 28: 283-302.

Earle, Timothy K. and Robert W. Preucel

1987 Processual Archaeology and the Radical Critique. Current Anthropology 28: 501-538.

Kristiansen, Kristian

1988 The Black and the Red: Shanks and Tilley's Programme for a Radical Archaeology. Antiquity 62(236): 473-482.

Kohl, Philip

1985 Symbolic Cognitive Archaeology: A New Loss of Innocence. Dialectial Anthropology 9:105-117.

1988 Limits to a Post-Processual Archaeology (or the Dangers of a New Scholasticism). ms.

Layton, Robert, editor

1989 Conflict in the Archaeology of Living Traditions. Unwin Hyman, London.

(Intro., Chapter by Layton)

Watson, Richard A.

1990 Ozymandias, king of kings: Postprocessual Radical Archaeology as Critique. American Antiquity 55: 673-689.

Preucel, Robert, editor

1991 Processual and Postprocessual Archaeologies: Multiple Ways of Knowing the Past., Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Occasional Paper No. 10 .

12. NEO-DARWINIAN EVOLUTIONIST/ SELECTIONIST ARCHAEOLOGY

 

Dunnell, Robert

1980 Evolutionary Theory and Archaeology. In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, edited by Michael B. Schiffer, Vol. 3: 35-99. Academic Press, New York.

1989 Aspects of the Application of Evolutionary Theory in Archaeology. In Archaeological Thought in America, edited by C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, pp. 35-49. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

1995 What Is It That Actually Evolves. In Evolutionary Archaeology: Methodological Issues, edited by Patrice A. Teltser, pp. 33-50. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Rindos, David

1985 Darwinian Selection, Symbolic Variation, and the Evolution of Culture. Current Anthropology 26: 65-88.

Diener, Paul

1982 The Evolution of Dysfunction. Culture II(2):43-51.

Lyman, R. Lee and M. J. O'Brien

1998 The Goals of Evolutionary Archaeology: History and Explanation. Current Anthropology 39(5):615-.

Schiffer, M.

1996 Some Relationships between Behavioral and Evolutionary Archaeology. American Antiquity 61(4):643-662.

O'Brien, M. J., and T. D. Holland

1995 The Nature and Premise of a Selection-Based Archaeology. In Evolutionary Archaeology: Methodological Issues, edited by Patrice A. Teltser, pp. 175-200. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

 

13. MARXIST ARCHAEOLOGY

Friedman, Jonathan

1974 Marxism, Structuralism and Vulgar Materialism. Man 9: 444-469.

Gilman, Antonio

1989 Marxism in American Archaeology. In Archaeological Thought in America, edited by C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, pp. 63-73. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kohl. Philip L.

1981 Materialist Approaches to Prehistory. Annual Review of Anthropology 10: 89-118.

Spriggs, Matthew

1984 Another Way of Telling: Marxist Perspectives in Archaeology. In Marxist Perspectives in Archaeology, edited by Matthew Spriggs, pp. 1-9. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kristiansen, Kristian

1984 Ideology and Material Culture: An Archaeological Perspective. In Marxist Perspectives in Archaeology, edited by Matthew Spriggs, pp. 72-100. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

McGuire, Randall H.

1992 Chapter 1: Introduction. A Marxist Archaeology, pp. 1-19. Academic Press, San Diego.

1992 Chapter 7: Death and society in a Hohokam community. A Marxist Archaeology, pp. 179-212. Academic Press, San Diego.

Muller, Jon

1997 Mississippian Political Economy Plenum.

Recommended Readings

Clark, John E. and Michael Blake

1996 The power of prestige: Competitive generosity and the emergence of rank societies in lowland Mesoamerica. Article 10 in Contemporary Archaeology in Theory: A Reader, edited by R. Preucel and I. Hodder, pp. 258-281. Blackwell Publishers Ltd., Oxford, UK/Cambridge, MA.

Dunham, Donald L.

1991 History, Power, Ideology: Central Issues in Marxism and Anthropology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Friedman, J. and M. Rowlands (editors)

1978 The Evolution of Social Systems. Duckworth, London.

Gilman, Antonio

1996 Explaining the Upper Palaeolithic Revolution. Article 8 in Contemporary Archaeology in Theory: A Reader, edited by R. Preucel and I. Hodder, pp. 220-239. Blackwell Publishers Ltd., Oxford, UK/Cambridge, MA.

McGuire, Randall H.

1992 A Marxist Archaeology. Academic Press, San Diego.

McGuire, Randall H. and Robert Paynter (editors)

1991 The Archaeology of Inequality. Blackwell, Oxford.

Miller, Daniel and Christopher Tilley (editors)

1984 Ideology, Power and History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Miller, Daniel, Tilley, Christopher and Michael Rowlands (editors)

1989 Domination and Resistance. Unwin Hyman, London.

Spriggs, Matthew (editor)

1984 Marxist Perspectives in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Trigger, Bruce

1985 Marxism in Archaeology Real or Spurious? Reviews in Anthropology 12: 114-123.

14. ENGENDERED ARCHAEOLOGIES

Conkey, Margaret W. and Janet D. Spector

1984 Archaeology and the study of gender. In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, edited by Michael B. Schiffer, Vol. 7: 1-37. Academic Press, New York.

or

Conkey, Margaret W. and Joan M. Gero

1996 Archaeology and gender. Annual Review of Anthropology 24:

Gero, Joan M.

1985 Socio-politics and the woman-at-home ideology. American Antiquity 50: 342-350.

Wylie, Allison

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